CPR – Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

C is for Circulation – Compressions

Chest Compressions - Circulate the blood within the patient. It's important to place your hands correctly upon the patient’s chest when performing compressions.

To do so, find the point where the patient’s ribs meet (just below both halves) and interlock your fingers with both hands. Make sure you’re kneeling beside the patient’s shoulders (Do Not Lean on Patient). Once in position, lock your elbows and use your body’s weight to compress 2 inches upon the patient’s chest. Make sure to let the patient’s chest rise after each compression. Compressions on an infant are pressed just below the nipples.

Infant CPR - 2 Rescuers: One Rescuer should use two hands holding the infant facing up while positioning the fingers in the middle of the infant’s chest as the other rescuer uses a one-way valve—placing it over the infant’s mouth and nose. One rescuer will perform compressions while the other uses the rescue valve. You can also apply a ratio of 15:2 compressions to breathing.

Chest Compression Tempo: perform CPR while matching the tempo of the song, "Staying Alive" while making sure to push hard and fast.

Chest Compression Fraction:is the total percentage of resuscitation time when performed by the rescuer(s) during cardiac arrest. Whether intended or unintended interruptions (such as real-world delays) occur Chest Compression Fraction aims to minimize pauses in chest compressions. Chest Compression Fraction Goal: target of at least 60%.

Remember, until help arrives, administer CPR. Perform 100-120 compressions per minute.

A is for Airway. Clear the Airway

Check for any obstructions, such as tongue, foreign objects, vomit, swelling or food blocking the patient’s throat or windpipe (finger-swipe, if necessary).

Make sure the patient is on a solid surface (on the backside). Next, kneel next to the patient’s neck and shoulders. Open the patient’s airway by tilting the head back with the palm of one hand while gently lifting the chin with your other hand. For no more than 10 seconds, check for life: listen for any sounds, put your cheek next to the patient’s mouth to feel any breaths while also looking for any motion. Rescuers can check steps simultaneously. If the patient is assumed lifeless begin Mouth-to-Mouth procedure.

Perform Chest Compressions on patient's who are obese or pregnant.

B is for Breathing. Mouth-to-Mouth

Rescue Breathing - perform mouth-to-mouth; however, it can also be performed mouth-to-nose, mouth-to-mask, and mouth-to-stoma, but in rare cases.

Breathing tasks: While still performing the Airway technique pinch the patient’s nose shut. With a complete seal over the patient’s mouth, with your mouth, breathe into the patient until you see the chest inflate. If the chest does not rise, repeat the Airway technique. When performing the breathing technique make sure to give two breaths for 1 second each.

Once the breathing technique is applied, you will continue the C-A-B’s.

CPR for Infants (Age Less Than 1 Year, Excluding Newborns)
   Witnessed Collapse: call 911 or have someone call
   Un-Witnessed Collapse: perform CPR (for 2 minutes), call 911 or have someone call
   Chest compressions - 100-120/min
   Perform CPR - Circulate, Airway, Breathing (C-A-B’s)
   Compressions at about 1½ inches (4 cm) - 1/3 AP diameter of chest
   30:2 compressions over breaths (seal infant’s mouth and nose) - 2 Rescuers 15:2
   2 Rescuers: 2 thumbs compression
   Use AED as soon as it's available

Click for Summary of Infant CPR
CPR – Components for Infants (Age Less Than 1 Year, Excluding Newborns)

Scene safety

  1. Check the environment – making sure it’s safe for rescuers and victims

Recognition of cardiac arrest

  1. Check responsiveness
  2. No breathing or only gasping – ie., no normal breathing
  3. Within 10 seconds – no positive pulse
    1. (You can check for a pulse and breathing simultaneously in less than 10 seconds)

Activation of emergency response system

  • Witnessed collapse
    1. Leave the victim, if you’re alone without a mobile phone, and activate the emergency response system while retrieving an AED before performing CPR
  • Unwitnessed collapse
    1. Give 2 minutes of CPR
    2. Activate the emergency response system, get an AED and return to the victim
    3. Resume CPR; use the AED as soon as it is available

Compression- ventilation ratio without advanced airway

  • 1 rescuer
    30:2
  • 2 or more rescuers
    15:2

Compression- ventilation ratio with advanced airway

  • Chest compressions – 100-120/min
  • Give 1 breath every 6 seconds (10 breaths/min)

Compression rate

  • 100-120/min

Compression depth

  • At least 1/3 AP diameter of chest
  • About 1½ inches (4 cm)

Hand placement

  • 1 rescuer
    Just below the nipple line – 2 fingers in center of chest
  • 2 or more rescuers
    2 thumb–encircling hands in the center of the chest, just below the nipple line Just below the nipple line – encircling hands (2 thumbs) in center of chest

Chest recoil

  • Make sure not to lean on the chest of the victim – Allow a full recoil after each chest compression

Minimizing interruptions

  • Compression interruptions – limit to less than 10 seconds

CPR for Children (Age 1 Year to Puberty)
   Witnessed Collapse: call 911 or have someone call
   Un-Witnessed Collapse: perform CPR (for 2 minutes), call 911 or have someone call
   Chest compressions - 100-120/min
   Perform CPR - Circulate, Airway, Breathing (C-A-B’s)
   Compressions at about 2 inches (5 cm) - 1/3 AP diameter of chest
   30:2 compressions over breaths - 2 Rescuers 15:2
   2 Rescuers: Perform tasks simultaneously
   Use AED as soon as it's available

Click for Summary of Child CPR
CPR – Components for Children (Age 1 Year to Puberty)

Scene safety

  1. Check the environment – making sure it’s safe for rescuers and victims

Recognition of cardiac arrest

  1. Check responsiveness
  2. No breathing or only gasping – ie., no normal breathing
  3. Within 10 seconds – no positive pulse
    1. (You can check for a pulse and breathing simultaneously in less than 10 seconds)

Activation of emergency response system

  • Witnessed collapse
    1. Leave the victim, if you’re alone without a mobile phone, and activate the emergency response system while retrieving an AED before performing CPR
  • Unwitnessed collapse
    1. Give 2 minutes of CPR
    2. Activate the emergency response system, get an AED and return to the victim
    3. Resume CPR; use the AED as soon as it is available

Compression- ventilation ratio without advanced airway

  • 1 rescuer
    30:2
  • 2 or more rescuers
    15:2

Compression- ventilation ratio with advanced airway

  • Chest compressions – 100-120/min
  • Give 1 breath every 6 seconds (10 breaths/min)

Compression rate

  • 100-120/min

Compression depth

  • At least 1/3 AP diameter of chest
  • About 2 inches (5 cm)

Hand placement

  • 1 or 2 hands can be used (optional for small children)
  • On the lower half of the breastbone (sternum)

Chest recoil

  • Make sure not to lean on the chest of the victim – Allow a full recoil after each chest compression

Minimizing interruptions

  • Compression interruptions – limit to less than 10 seconds

CPR for Adults & Adolescents
   Check for life
   Before performing CPR call 911 or have someone else call
   Chest compressions - 100-120/min
   2 Rescuers: Perform tasks simultaneously
   Perform CPR – Circulate, Airway, Breathing (C-A-B’s)
   Compressions at about 2 inches (5 cm)
   1 or 2 rescuers - 30:2 compressions over breaths
   Use AED as soon as it's available

Click for Summary of Adult & Adolescent CPR
CPR – Components for Adults & Adolescents

Scene safety

  1. Check the environment – making sure it’s safe for rescuers and victims

Recognition of cardiac arrest

  1. Check responsiveness
  2. No breathing or only gasping – ie., no normal breathing
  3. Within 10 seconds – no positive pulse
    1. (You can check for a pulse and breathing simultaneously in less than 10 seconds)

Activation of emergency response system

  • If you do not have a mobile phone – leave the victim and activate the emergency response system while retrieving an AED before performing CPR.
  • Have someone activate the emergency response system. Perform CPR immediately and use the AED as it becomes available.

Compression- ventilation ratio without advanced airway

  • 1 or 2 rescuers – 30:2

Compression- ventilation ratio with advanced airway

  • Chest compressions – 100-120/min
  • Give 1 breath every 6 seconds (10 breaths/min)

Compression rate

  • 100-120/min

Compression depth

  • At least 2 inches (5 cm)

Hand placement

  • 2 hands on the breastbone (sternum) on the lower half

Chest recoil

  • Make sure not to lean on the chest of the victim – Allow a full recoil after each chest compression

Minimizing interruptions

  • Compression interruptions – limit to less than 10 seconds

Rescuers should never

  • Compress slower than 100/min or faster than 120/min
  • Compress in-depth less than 2 inches (5 cm) or more than 2.4 (6 cm)
  • Lean on victim’s chest during compressions
  • Allow interruption during compressions more than 10 seconds
  • Provide excessive ventilation during breathing task, ie., excessive breathing with force or too many breaths

When to stop CPR
   When you’re too exhausted to continue
   Broken ribs, lung collapses, etc.
   If an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) is accessible
   If Emergency Medical Services (EMS) arrives



Example Clips Below




Click for Tip
Remember, C-A-B stands for Circulation, Airway, Breathing.