The leading cause of death in the US according to the Center for Disease Control ( is cardiovascular disease. Risk factors for heart disease are smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, lack of exercise, stress, and obesity. Factors which are unavoidable are age, sex, hereditary and diabetes. Death is most likely to occur after 10 minutes of a loss of oxygen to the brain. From 6 to 10 minutes brain damage is expected. From 4 to 6 minutes brain damage is very possible and from 0 to 4 minutes brain damage is virtually non-existent. However, CPR should still be performed.

CPR for 2 Rescuers
Compression-ventilation ratio without advanced airway For Adults and Adolescents: compression over breathing 30:2 and for Children and Infants: 15:2.

Compression-ventilation ratio with advanced airway For Adults, Adolescents, Children, and Infants: Continuous compressions at a rate of 100-120/min while providing one breath every 6 seconds.

When to stop CPR
If the patient regains a pulse, if the area becomes unsafe, if cardiac arrest last longer than 30 minutes, if the rescuer(s) is too exhausted or ordered to stop. Or, if these complications arise: Fractures, punctures, lung ruptures or collapses, rib separation, bruises of the heart or lungs.

Untrained rescuers should provide Compression-only CPR since it's easy for an operator (dispatcher) to provide and guide instructions over the telephone. Remember, it is a priority to activate the Emergency Response System immediately and to provide chest compressions.

The expectation is that Health Care Providers (HCP's) are properly trained in CPR and efficiently able to perform both compressions and ventilation. Priority for the HCP (especially if alone) should be to activate the Emergency Response System as well as perform compressions. Priority may change sequence depending on circumstances (i.e., AED availability).

Bloodborne Pathogens to be aware of:
Hepatitis B and C (HBV / HCV), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Tuberculosis (TB).